Большой топонимический словарь Крыма
Вернуться на портал "Киммерия"

 


 

Условия формирования топонимии Крыма

В. А. Бушаков
ЛЕКСИЧНИЙ СКЛАД ІСТОРИЧНОЇ ТОПОНІМІЇ КРИМУ - Київ – 2003
Часть №2 (резюме на английском языке)

SUMMARY - V. A. Bushakov - LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF THE HISTORIC TOPONYMY OF CRIMEA

In the monogragh historic and geographic, ethnical and linguistic conditions of formation of the toponymic system of the Crimean peninsula have been considered. It was formed during centuries in languages of the peoples that inhabited Crimea in ancient times or in the Middle Ages and live on its land nowadays: Tauri, Greeks, Scythians, Alans, Cumans, Rumeis, Urums, Tatars, Nogays, Karaites, Krymchaks, Genoeses, and Armenians.

As a result of the historic and linguistic analysis of the geographic names presented in ancient written monuments, on maps, in lists of the villages, scientific and local lore literature and kept in memory by Crimean Tatars which were banished from their native land and then retained in exile half a century, nomenclature of the Iranian, Greek, Turkic, Caucasian, and Italian geographic terms and other words forming the historic toponymy of Crimea has been established. It totals about 200 Greek and over 1,700 Turkic lexemes, as well 11 Iranian, 3 Armenian, 5 Italian, and 7 Caucasian lexemes. In the toponymy many dialectisms and archaisms are reflected.

Characteristic phonetic changes which occurred in the Greek toponyms assimilated by the Turkic toponymic system are determined that allows to etymologize opaque toponyms of the Rumeic origin.

As to morphology, lexicon reflected in the Crimean toponymy falls into nouns, adjectives, numerals, numerative words, verbs in the personal or participle forms, and postpositions. The Turkic affixes -cıq, -lı : -sız, -laq ~ -lav, -lıq, -nıñki and the Rumeic suffix -εις can be characterized as toponym-forming. The nouns are devided into appellatives and onyms:

  • anthroponyms (names of ancestors, first settlers, landowners, and historic persons),
  • hagionyms (names of the saints to which churches and chapels were dedicated),
  • genonyms (names of kins or groups of kins),
  • ethnonyms (names of tribes and nations), and transferred geographic names (’Ιορδάνης the Jordan in Palestine, the mountain Φασγα in the Bible, the valley עמק יהושפט near Jerusalem, Indol the Volga, the river Мартэ in the Kuban basin, the town of Naxçevan, Şam Syria, Damascus).

Genonyms and ethnonyms indicate to migrations of peoples and allow to reveal ethnic components that participated in ethnogenesis of Crimean Tatars.

The appellative lexicon can be devided into the following basic lexical and semantic groups:

  • (1) geographic nomens, subdivided into orographic, hydrographic, and landscape terms,
  • (2) metals, minerals, and rocks,
  • (3) flora,
  • (4) fauna,
  • (5) types of settlements and fortresses,
  • (6) various utility buildings and apartment houses,
  • (7) pasturable and arable lands,
  • (8) feuds,
  • (9) kinship terms,
  • (10) titles,
  • (11) trades,
  • (12) household equipment,
  • (13) musical instruments,
  • (14) head-dresses and footwear,
  • (15) folk and religious holidays,
  • (16) religion and mythology,
  • (17) cult places and buildings.

Adjectives in toponyms inform about various attributes of geographical objects: colour, size, height, depth, form, presence or absence of certain quality, location, orientation, relative time of origin, etc.

Derivational and inflexional affixes frequently met in toponyms have been revealed. In the vocabulary articles etymologic references and antonyms, synonyms, and accordingly Greek or Turkic analogues to the lexeme are given.

Concepts on which the Russian names with Soviet semantics were selected for total replacement of the historic toponyms of Crimea after deportation of the Crimean Tatar nation on May 18, 1944 are also considered.

на верх страницы::Лексический состав топонимии Крыма статьи №№1-5::на главную


 
Поиск по алфавиту
А Б В Г Д
ЕЁ Ж З ИЙ К
Л М Н О П
Р С Т У Ф
Х Ц Ч Ш Щ
ЪЬ Ы Э Ю Я

 
Форма поиска топонимов
Словарик значений слов
Дополнительные материалы
Заметки по топонимике
Происхождение названий
Феномены топонимов
Топонимические тайны
Теоретические основы
Условия формирования
Лексика топонимов Крыма
Словотворный анализ слов
Топонимический полуостров
Взаимодействие культур
Топомика Крыма (статьи)
Топонимические прогулки - 1
Топонимические прогулки - 2
Топонимические прогулки - 3
Топонимические легенды
Библиографический список
 



Достопримечательности Крыма
-неизвестное об известном-

Судакская крепость в Судаке

Пещерные города Крыма - Эски-Кермен

Чёрное море природа рыбы птицы

 


Вернуться на портал "Киммерия"

© KWD 2002-2017 (при использовании материалов активная ссылка на сайт обязательна)
Администратор сайта - kimmeria@kimmeria.com

Яндекс цитирования